第 24卷第 1期 宿 州 学 院 学 报 V ol . 24,N o. 1Jane Eyre i n Book and on Screen
ZHUO R an
(Comm unicati on U n iversity of Ch ina , Beijing Ch ina , 100024)
Abstract :A s two different art for m s , literature and fil m s om eti m es share si m ilarities and can be adap ted to each oth 2er . Focusing on the B ritish classic Jane Eyre , th is article is going to find out the differences in p l ots , characterizati on strategies and settings betw een the original novel and its fil m versi ons , and to exp l ore the background under w h ich fil m adap tati on from literary classics becom es increasingly popular and w hether , in an age of fast -food culture and m ass m edia , the faithfulness to the original work should be m aintained . Key words :F il m adap tati on ; O riginal work s ; Jane Eyre
CL C . num ber :I 207 Docum ent code :A A rticl I D :1673-2006(2009) 01-0089-03
作者简介 :卓然 (1986-) , 女 , 安徽宿州人 , 硕士研究生 , 研究方向 :国际新闻与跨文化交流 。
A dap ting literary classics for cine m a has been
fil m 2m arkers ’ fancy even since the earliest day w hen fil m industry began . W e can na m e l o ts of fil m sw h ich tell exactly the sa m e sto ries as the o riginal novels do
o r w h ich are si m ilar to the original wo rk s . F il m
adap tati on has no t on ly fulfilled the adap to rs ’ desire , starred num erous fil m 2m arkers and actors but als o has influence on the popularizati on of literature certain cultures
. T he reas on is For peop le , w atch ing and are than reading . reading , w h ich in s they are mo re
p leasurable ”
, “ tho se w ho are h igh ly literate of 2tenti m es succum b to the p leasures of listening and w atch ing in p reference to reading . T hose w ho are il 2literate have no cho ice but to w atch and listen and the se m iliterate have a li m ited choice . Even befo re the advent of the audi o 2visual age , reading in general and reading seri ous literature in particular has al w ays
been the p rivilege of the fe w ”
, “ T he advent of the electron ic age , how ever , bough t endless alternatives to reading novels , p lays , and sho rt ficti ons , and in 2
deed to mo st fo r m s of the w ritten world ”
. O n the one hand , th is p rovides peop le from all classes a chance to learn literature from w atch ing fil m s or TV p lays , thus s p reads the j oy of app reciating classics w h ich bel onged to the upper circle to al m ost every 2body . It hel p s to raise the in tellectual tone of s ociety , cultivate the public m ind and refine peop le ’ s pers on 2nal life . But on the other hand , as A rthur T race said , the “ audi o 2visual revoluti on is one more m aj o r th reat to the p reservati on of our literary heritage . ” It is “ one of the most persistent th reats to a th riving lit 2
erary traditi on ” . W atch ing fil m s not a two 2w ay in 2
teractive syste m and ask initiative nor cre 2. It on w h ich can be peop le dull 2w itted its onal inculcati on and vulgarizes literature . Charl otte B ron te ’ s wo rds , stated early in 1848, m ay m ake th ings clear . H earing that Jane Eyre had been put on the stage , she said to Sm ith W illia m s (a literary advis o r to Sm ith , E lder &Co . — Charl o tte’ s publisher ) :the p lay is very unfavorable for its autho r ’ s part . A ll th ings in the story could be unluck ily and s orrow fully
exaggerated and debased by the actors
. I canno t hel p ask ing m yself , how can M r . Rochester be acted out ? W hat I have in m y m ind is a hum iliating p icture . A s fo r Jane Eyre , I can only i m agine an oddly 2behaved and stagy heroine (translated by the w riter of th is ar 2ticle ) .
D es p ite the author ’ s objecti on , Jane Eyre has engendered num erous fil m adap tati ons including eigh t silen t versi ons , more than ten moti on p icture ones , six m usicals and seven televisi on versi ons (four of the m are p roduced by the BBC ) , earliest of w h ich re 2leased in 1910and the latest in 2008, most are cl ose related to the o riginal story and en titled Jane Eyre , w h ile o thers have more or less connecti on w ith the
. Fo r exa mp le , a versi on called T he Castle of T ho rnfield w as released in 1915and in 1918a W om 2an and W ife . In 1943, a horror movie l oosely based
upon Jane Eyre ca m e out , w ith an aston ish ing na m e : IW alked w ith a Zom bie . A dap tati on of th is English classic see m s not only the j ob of peop le from English 2 s peak ing coun tries :there is a versi on m ade in Ger 2 m any called O rphan of L owood , one in M exico called A rdiente Secreto (English :" A rdent Secret " ) , and one in Hong Kong called T he O rphan Girl . Among all th is 30o r s o adap tati ons , the 1944versi on w ith a screenp lay by John House m an and A ldous H ux ley is very fa mous . It features O rs on W elles as Rochester , Joan Fontaine as Jane , and E lizabeth T ayl o r as H elen Burns . W hat should be m en ti oned here is that the scri p tw riter A ldous H ux ley als o adap ted W uthering H eigh ts into fil m in 1939(It is not a perfect one part 2 ly because it covers on ly the first half of the story , ending up w ith Katherine ’ s death , but it is regarded an intriguing in terp retati on to the original ) . T he adap tati on of 1944Jane Eyre fil m is no t a comp lete one :m any subp l ots are chopped , w h ich affects the coherency and reliability of the story . W orse still , critics said that the heroine in th is versi on is over 2 beautiful , over 2s ole m n but less passi onate (these are the th ree common defects in mo st Jane Eyre adap ta 2 ti ons . ) w h ile the char m ing “ M r . Rochester ” w as “ a shock to all the audience ” . A ccording to the , though Edw ard Fairfax Rochester has a
w ith elus ory exp ressi on and h is
quen t , he po ssesses great tur 2 ous s p irit . M anor in the fil m 2face , w ith no traits of the original “ H ero ” . T h is fil m is hardly a successful one , but the 1971versi on is wo rse . Jane here is too l ovely from all accoun ts . T here is als o an 2 o ther W uthering H eigh ts fil m in the sa m e year and the p layer of H eathcliff — T i m othy D alton is very eye 2catch ing . H e would be the future Ja m es Bond in 007series , and mo reover , he got the role of Rochester in the 1983TV versi on .
Compared to the old ones , the adap tati on s in the 1990s are generally better . T echno l ogical and art sk ill advance coun ts for parts of the reas on but the mo st i m po rtan t is that these versi on s are mo re faith 2 ful to the original work s as w ell as the intenti on of the w riters . For in stance , the 1992W uthering H eigh ts cho se Yo rk , the B ron tes ’ hom etow n as shooting p lace , condensed the w hole story in two hours ’ ti m e and had a bold try to put the “ w riter ” in to the fil m as a narrator to m ake clear the comp li 2 cated pers onae relati onsh i p s . T he result turned out surp risingly good . T he 1996Jane Eyre w h ich i m 2 m erges in an atmo s phere of s om ber and m elancholy (too m uch , perhap s ) als o won peop le ’ s app lause . A lthough the ch ildhood of Jane has been greatly si m 2 p lified , the senti m ental and l ovely little Jane leaves audience deep i m p ressi on . T he grow n 2up governess is more convincing as w ell :she IS “ obscure , p lain , and little ” . T he dial ogues are natural , and the cos 2 tum es , ligh ts , effects and scenery are mo re satisfy 2 ing .
Because of ti m e li m itati on , w e cannot require too m uch from a fil m , but every reader de m ands fi 2 delity in th ree as pects :scenes (ti m e and p lace ) , leads (appearances and characteristics ) and m ain p l ots (the story line and the m es ) . T here are s o m any Jane Eyre ‘ s and W uthering H eigh ts ’ , but fe w of the m m eet peop le ’ s expectati on . T ake scenes in Jane Eyre fo r exa mp le . Peop le have already found several p roto 2 types of the settings in the book acco rding to Char 2 l o tte ’ s portrayal and the p laces she had been to , such as the C lergy D augh ters’ School at Cow an B ridge in L ancash ire , w h ich she described as L owood School ; the castle 2fo r m ed N orth R ano r in D erby Coun 2 ty , R idings m ano r and the m ano r in N orton w h ich has i m p ressive stairs (w as in the attic , too ) m i m of hornfield . N ovels have . So , w hen putting tho se i m 2 and even ts on the screen , peop le should m ake the m true to life and cl ose to w riters ’ descri p ti on and most readers ’ understanding . W hen Jane lives w ith A unt R eed and in the school , the sur 2 roundings m ake readers feel cold because it is w inter 2 ti m e , the house is m ade of stone , and the peop le there have no sympathy . W h ile stepp ing in to T ho rn 2 field ’ s hall , Jane sees a firep lace and m eets M rs . Fairfax w ho is k ind to her . T he change from cold to w ar m m eans the turning point of her life , and th is brings s om eth ing ne w to Jane . T he w riter gives these s orts of details and p lenty of i m ages , such as bird , ligh t , darkness , sto r m , food , ani m als , tree , book , w ater and al m ost all of the m p lay i m portan t roles . T hey wo rk in concert w ith each other to do fully p reparati on and foreshadow ing for the later parts of the story , enabling the story to devel op s mooth ly and naturally . A s for the style , Charl otte m ixes goth ic , supernatural and m ysteri ous atmo s phere together and never fo rgets the rom antic , p icturesque and char m ing scenery of the nature . T he change of scenes and feel 2 ings are of sa m e significance in fil m adap tati on . But w h ile novelists are experts of such j obs , fil m 2m akers and actors m ay be not .
For peop le w ho are not w illing to read book s o r have no ti m e to read , w atch ing fil m s is to s om e ex 2 ten t a good w ay for the m to receive (下转第 69页 )
困难 。 例如 , 对文化遗产的调查评估与规范管理理念 落后 ; 不当的城乡建设和土地利用造成文化遗产无 法逆转的损毁 ; 盲目过度的旅游开发和不当的修复 、 发掘造成的损失等等这些问题都暴露了我国在文化 遗产保护与利用中相关法律体制不完备的薄弱环 节 。 这都需要我们提高对文化遗产的保护意识 , 以更 恰当的方式对珍贵的文化遗产进行保护 。 因为文化 遗产是祖先留给我们的宝贝 , 我们不仅要保护好它 , 还要让它的魅力世代传下去 。
2. 5 充分发挥文化产业对民族传统文化的保护和 传承作用 。 日本文化产业已经成为 21世纪国民经济 的支柱产业和新的经济增长点 。 在日本经济发展过 程中 , 文化产业的成长和崛起使日本加速成为文化 出口大国 。 因为文化产品的大量出口 , 不仅带来了巨 大的外汇收入 , 更潜移默化地宣扬了本国文化 , 加强 了国内的凝聚力 , 对外国消费市场则散发出巨大的 吸引力 。 与日本相比 , 我国在文化产业发展上的弱点 是 十分明显的 。 用中国社会科学院 《文化蓝皮书》 (2004) 的话说 , “我国的文化产业还刚刚起步 , 总量 不大 , 增幅不高 , 行业图景比较破碎 , 体制和政策还 不连贯系统 , 尤其缺乏完整的统计资料 。 ” 我国至今 没有明晰的文化产业定义 , , 知识产权保护意识仍很薄弱 。
, 将形成 传承 。 3 结语
21世纪是文化大发展 、 大繁荣的新时代 , 文化 是综合国力的一部分 , 在国家建设中的作用是绝对 不容忽视的 。 日本与我国是一衣带水的近邻 , 同为东 亚地区重要的国家 , 与我国有着千百年互相往来的 历史等等这些共同之处都决定了我国可以从日本的 民族传统文化保护的经验中 , 思考和探索我国在新 世纪的民族传统文化保护和发展之路 。
安宇 , 沈山 . 日本和韩国的 “文化立国” 战略及其对我国的 借鉴 [J ]. 世界经济与政治论坛 , 2005, (4) :115.
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(上接第 90页 ) s om e common know ledge about liter 2 ary work s ; for peop le w ho show no in terest in origi 2 nal book s , fil m s are just mo ti on p ictures on the screen w h ich have not m uch relati on to their original creato rs . W hat they get is m erely audi o 2visual app re 2 ciati on . But peop le w ho like and w ho are fa m iliar w ith the o riginals are m uch mo re fastidi ous . A l 2 though “ there are a thousand H a m lets in a thousand peop le ’ s eyes ” and it is very difficult to m eet every 2 one ’ s de m ands , faithfulness to the original m aster 2 p iece is a m ust and a correct interp retati on is indis 2 pen sable . Even if peop le would rather w atch a sto ry acted out than read it , even if p icture reading is a k ind of hum an nature , betrayal of origin is for most part unaccep table . So in today ’ s audi o 2visual age , w hen the rep roducti on of literature is not that diffi 2 cult , giving “ rebirth ” to a healthy one is not that easy ; w hen the reading p rivilege has been rep laced by the popular partici pati on , thank s to the m ass m edia , the sign ificance of traditi onal literature canno t be sub 2 stituted by vulgar entertainm en t . A fter all , cultural heritage is s om eth ing w h ich m ust be h igh ly valued .
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